"Frequency and Time Dissemination With Optical Fibers"
The dissemination of time and frequency reference signals using optical fibers provides higher resolution than satellite techniques and is therefore the preferred choice for comparing distant atomic clocks at their ultimate accuracy over continental scales. Various techniques are possible, depending on the target application, required resolution and, last but not least, network constraints. In this tutorial, I will review the fundamentals and technical details of most relevant ones, then focus on critical aspects of their real-world implementation, characterization and data analysis. Finally, I will give an overview of novel scientific applications that become possible thanks to the capability of transferring the phase of a laser source with negligible degradation over thousands kilometers.